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Prerequisites: The course is intended for PhD students having background in animal science, veterinary medicine or biological sciences.

Objective: The main objective of the course is to give the participants an understanding of biological markers as indicators of biological state of the dairy cows - normal biological processes or pathogenic processes. 

Content: The course will cover topics such as: concept of biomarkers, (why do we need biomarkers, what are biomarkers), how to identify biomarkers, and how biomarkers are used for dairy cow fertility, mammary immune system, welfare, health, rumen function and milk quality and technological properties assessment.

Literature: A list of required pre-course reading will be provided in due time at the course web page:

Examination: The students have to prepare an abstract concerning their own research studies and present the matter at the course. Active participation in discussions is also appreciated. An abstract should be sent to the course organizers together with the registration form.

Additional information: The course is offered in the frames of Graduate School in Biomedicine and Biotechnology. The course will be held in Estonia, Tartu, at the University of Life Sciences (Eesti Maaülikool).  For students the course, the course materials, lunches and coffee breaks are free. The students have to find finances for travelling and accommodation. More information on the course web page:

Responsible Department: Department of Nutrition and Animal Products Quality.


Biomarkers in Dairy Science
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